Yes. I have just been to the CDI (centre des impots).
You do not need to pay French income tax unless your center of interests is in France.
This is defined as any of the following:
spending more than 183 days per year in France
having your family or main source of income in France
having the center of your interests in France.
If any of these apply than The French consider you required to pay the French goverment on the the difference between your French tax liability and the US tax liability. There is no double taxation. So if you earned 50K in the US gros and you owe 6K in tax and in France someone who earns 50K (say single no kids) would have to pay about 8K than you would need to pay uncle sam 6k and chirac 2k..Generally French income tax rates are not that high but it is possible that you would owe the French some money but only if you spend more than 183 days per year and if you have at least a short-term residence permit (CST). Especially if you are single with no kids.