France is anything but a tax haven, having some of the highest tax rates in Europe. The tax system is also somewhat different than in the States, you file an income tax return and then see if you have to pay. The below list is not exhaustive, you might run into other local taxes, but this should give you an idea of the different taxes that a French resident must pay.
Value Added Tax - France has a Value Added Tax or TVA (taxe sur la valeur ajoutée) of 19.6%. Value Added Tax is different from sales tax in that only the value added at each stage of production is taxed and not the overall value of the goods or services. In France the Value Added Tax is figured in the price of a product. If you see something marked at 10 euros, then that is what you will pay, not 10 euros plus 19.6%.
Television Tax - Every owner of a television in France must pay a yearly tax (redevance audio-visuelle), in 2008 it was 116€. The money this tax rises is used in part to fund public television channels, France2, France3, France5 and Arté
Habitation Tax - Each housing unit in France must pay a habitation tax (taxe d'habitation). It dose not matter if you own the property or not, if you live in it you pay the tax. This tax is calculated locally by a land registrar and commission, it dose not have much relation to rent but to size, location and family situation.
Property Tax - All property owners in France must pay a yearly property tax (taxe foncière). This is much like property taxes in the states as the tax amount is calculated as a percentage of the value of the property.